10 gigabit Ethernet defines only full duplex point
to point links which are generally connected by
network switches. Half duplex operation and hubs
do not exist in 10GbE. A full-duplex (FDX), or sometimes
double-duplex system, allows communication in both
directions, and, unlike half-duplex, allows this
to happen simultaneously. Land-line telephone networks
are full-duplex, since they allow both callers to
speak and be heard at the same time. A good analogy
for a full-duplex system would be a two-lane road
with one lane for each direction.
radios can be designed as full-duplex systems, transmitting
on one frequency and receiving on another. This
is also called frequency-division duplex. Frequency-division
duplex systems can be extended to farther distances
using pairs of simple repeater stations, because
the communications transmitted on any one frequency
always travel in the same direction.
Ethernet connections work by making simultaneous
use of two physical pairs of twisted cable (which
are inside the jacket), wherein one pair is used
for receiving packets and one pair is used for sending
packets (two pairs per direction for some types
of Ethernet), to a directly connected device. This
effectively makes the cable itself a collision-free
environment and doubles the maximum data capacity
that can be supported by the connection.
are several benefits to using full-duplex over half-duplex.
First, time is not wasted, since no frames need
to be retransmitted, as there are no collisions.
Second, the full data capacity is available in both
directions because the send and receive functions
are separated. Third, stations (or nodes) do not
have to wait until others complete their transmission,
since there is only one transmitter for each twisted
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